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Condom |WORK|


The male condom is rolled onto an erect penis before intercourse and works by forming a physical barrier which blocks semen from entering the body of a sexual partner.[1][7] Male condoms are typically made from latex and, less commonly, from polyurethane, polyisoprene, or lamb intestine.[1] Male condoms have the advantages of ease of use, ease of access, and few side effects.[1] Individuals with latex allergy should use condoms made from a material other than latex, such as polyurethane.[1] Female condoms are typically made from polyurethane and may be used multiple times.[7]




condom



Condoms as a method of preventing STIs have been used since at least 1564.[1] Rubber condoms became available in 1855, followed by latex condoms in the 1920s.[2][3] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[8] As of 2019, globally around 21% of those using birth control use the condom, making it the second-most common method after female sterilization (24%).[9] Rates of condom use are highest in East and Southeast Asia, Europe and North America.[9] About six to nine billion are sold a year.[10]


The typical use pregnancy rate among condom users varies depending on the population being studied, ranging from 10 to 18% per year.[13] The perfect use pregnancy rate of condoms is 2% per year.[11] Condoms may be combined with other forms of contraception (such as spermicide) for greater protection.[14]


Condoms are widely recommended for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). They have been shown to be effective in reducing infection rates in both men and women. While not perfect, the condom is effective at reducing the transmission of organisms that cause AIDS, genital herpes, cervical cancer, genital warts, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and other diseases.[15] Condoms are often recommended as an adjunct to more effective birth control methods (such as IUD) in situations where STD protection is also desired.[16]For this reason, condoms are frequently used by those in the swinging (sexual practice) community.


The 2000 NIH review concluded that condom use significantly reduces the risk of gonorrhea for men.[17] A 2006 study reports that proper condom use decreases the risk of transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) to women by approximately 70%.[20] Another study in the same year found consistent condom use was effective at reducing transmission of herpes simplex virus-2, also known as genital herpes, in both men and women.[21]


Although a condom is effective in limiting exposure, some disease transmission may occur even with a condom. Infectious areas of the genitals, especially when symptoms are present, may not be covered by a condom, and as a result, some diseases like HPV and herpes may be transmitted by direct contact.[22] The primary effectiveness issue with using condoms to prevent STDs, however, is inconsistent use.[23]


Condoms may also be useful in treating potentially precancerous cervical changes. Exposure to human papillomavirus, even in individuals already infected with the virus, appears to increase the risk of precancerous changes. The use of condoms helps promote regression of these changes.[24] In addition, researchers in the UK suggest that a hormone in semen can aggravate existing cervical cancer, condom use during sex can prevent exposure to the hormone.[25]


"Double bagging", using two condoms at once, is often believed to cause a higher rate of failure due to the friction of rubber on rubber.[31][32] This claim is not supported by research. The limited studies that have been done found that the simultaneous use of multiple condoms decreases the risk of condom breakage.[33][34]


Standard condoms will fit almost any penis, with varying degrees of comfort or risk of slippage. Many condom manufacturers offer "snug" or "magnum" sizes. Some manufacturers also offer custom sized-to-fit condoms, with claims that they are more reliable and offer improved sensation/comfort.[37][38][39] Some studies have associated larger penises and smaller condoms with increased breakage and decreased slippage rates (and vice versa), but other studies have been inconclusive.[40]


It is recommended for condoms manufacturers to avoid very thick or very thin condoms, because they are both considered less effective.[41] Some authors encourage users to choose thinner condoms "for greater durability, sensation, and comfort",[42] but others warn that "the thinner the condom, the smaller the force required to break it".[43]


Experienced condom users are significantly less likely to have a condom slip or break compared to first-time users, although users who experience one slippage or breakage are more likely to suffer a second such failure.[44][45] An article in Population Reports suggests that education on condom use reduces behaviors that increase the risk of breakage and slippage.[46] A Family Health International publication also offers the view that education can reduce the risk of breakage and slippage, but emphasizes that more research needs to be done to determine all of the causes of breakage and slippage.[40]


Among people who intend condoms to be their form of birth control, pregnancy may occur when the user has sex without a condom. The person may have run out of condoms, or be traveling and not have a condom with them, or dislike the feel of condoms and decide to "take a chance". This behavior is the primary cause of typical use failure (as opposed to method or perfect use failure).[47]


The use of latex condoms by people with an allergy to latex can cause allergic symptoms, such as skin irritation.[51] In people with severe latex allergies, using a latex condom can potentially be life-threatening.[52] Repeated use of latex condoms can also cause the development of a latex allergy in some people.[53] Irritation may also occur due to spermicides that may be present.[54]


Male condoms are usually packaged inside a foil or plastic wrapper, in a rolled-up form, and are designed to be applied to the tip of the penis and then unrolled over the erect penis. It is important that some space be left in the tip of the condom so that semen has a place to collect; otherwise it may be forced out of the base of the device. Most condoms have a teat end for this purpose. After use, it is recommended the condom be wrapped in tissue or tied in a knot, then disposed of in a trash receptacle.[55] Condoms are used to reduce the likelihood of pregnancy during intercourse and to reduce the likelihood of contracting sexually-transmitted infections (STIs). Condoms are also used during fellatio to reduce the likelihood of contracting STIs.


Some couples find that putting on a condom interrupts sex, although others incorporate condom application as part of their foreplay. Some men and women find the physical barrier of a condom dulls sensation. Advantages of dulled sensation can include prolonged erection and delayed ejaculation; disadvantages might include a loss of some sexual excitement.[15] Advocates of condom use also cite their advantages of being inexpensive, easy to use, and having few side effects.[15][56]


In 2012 proponents gathered 372,000 voter signatures through a citizens' initiative in Los Angeles County to put Measure B on the 2012 ballot. As a result, Measure B, a law requiring the use of condoms in the production of pornographic films, was passed.[57] This requirement has received much criticism and is said by some to be counter-productive, merely forcing companies that make pornographic films to relocate to other places without this requirement.[58] Producers claim that condom use depresses sales.[59]


Condoms are often used in sex education programs, because they have the capability to reduce the chances of pregnancy and the spread of some sexually transmitted diseases when used correctly. A recent American Psychological Association (APA) press release supported the inclusion of information about condoms in sex education, saying "comprehensive sexuality education programs ... discuss the appropriate use of condoms", and "promote condom use for those who are sexually active."[60]


In the United States, teaching about condoms in public schools is opposed by some religious organizations.[61] Planned Parenthood, which advocates family planning and sex education, argues that no studies have shown abstinence-only programs to result in delayed intercourse, and cites surveys showing that 76% of American parents want their children to receive comprehensive sexuality education including condom use.[62]


Common procedures in infertility treatment such as semen analysis and intrauterine insemination (IUI) require collection of semen samples. These are most commonly obtained through masturbation, but an alternative to masturbation is use of a special collection condom to collect semen during sexual intercourse.


For fertility treatments, a collection condom may be used to collect semen during sexual intercourse where the semen is provided by the woman's partner. Private sperm donors may also use a collection condom to obtain samples through masturbation or by sexual intercourse with a partner and will transfer the ejaculate from the collection condom to a specially designed container. The sperm is transported in such containers, in the case of a donor, to a recipient woman to be used for insemination, and in the case of a woman's partner, to a fertility clinic for processing and use. However, transportation may reduce the fecundity of the sperm. Collection condoms may also be used where semen is produced at a sperm bank or fertility clinic.[citation needed]


Condom therapy is sometimes prescribed to infertile couples when the female has high levels of antisperm antibodies. The theory is that preventing exposure to her partner's semen will lower her level of antisperm antibodies, and thus increase her chances of pregnancy when condom therapy is discontinued. However, condom therapy has not been shown to increase subsequent pregnancy rates.[66][67][68] 041b061a72


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